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The subject of theor grammar. Its relation to practical grammar. Grammar may be practical and theoretical. The aim of practical grammar is the description of grammar rules that are necessary to understand and formulate sentences. The aim of theor grammar is to offer explanation for these rules. Generally speaking, theor grammar deals with the L as a functional system. 2The grammatical structure of the English languageThe grammatical structure of language is a system of means used to turn linguistic units into communicative ones, in other words – the units of language into the units of speech.
Such means are inflexions, affixation, word order, function words and phonological means. Generally speaking, Indo-European languages are classified into two structural types – synthetic and analytic. Synthetic languages are defined as ones of ‘internal’ grammar of the word – most of grammatical meanings and grammatical relations of words are expressed with the help of inflexions (Ukrainian – ??????, Russian, Latin, etc). Analytical languages are those of ‘external’ grammar because most grammatical meanings and grammatical forms are expressed with the help of words (will do).
However, we cannot speak of languages as purely synthetic or analytic – the English language (Modern English) possesses analytical forms as prevailing, while in the Ukrainian language synthetic devices are dominant. In the process of time English has become more analytical as compared to Old English. 3Morphology and syntax as 2 main parts of grammar. Syntax can in linguistics be described as the study of the rules, or “patterned relations” that govern the way the words in a sentence come together.
Syntax attempts to systematize descriptive grammar, and is unconcerned with prescriptive grammar. Morphology is a sub discipline of linguistics that studies word structure. While words are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most (if not all) languages, words can be related to other words by rules. Morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies such rules across and within l-ges8Syntax as a part of grammar. Kinds of syntactic theories.
Syntax can in linguistics be described as the study of the rules, or “patterned relations” that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. Syntax attempts to systematize descriptive grammar, and is unconcerned with prescriptive grammar (see Prescription and description). Transformational-Generative Grammar. The main point of the T-G G is that the endless variety of sentences in a L can be reduced to a finite number of kernels by means of transformations. These kernels serve the basis for generating sentences by means of syntactic processes. Constructional Syntax.
Constructional analysis of syntactic deals with the constructional significance/insignificance of a part of the sentence for the whole syntactic unit. The theory is based on the obligatory or optional environment of syntactic elements. Communicative Syntax. It is primarily concerned with the analysis of utterances from the point of their communicative value and informative structure. Pragmatic approach to the study of syntactic units can briefly be described as the study of the way language is used in particular contexts to achieve particular goals. Speech Act Theory was first introduced by John Austin.
The notion of a speech act presupposes that an utterance can be said with different intentions or purposes and therefore can influence the speaker and situation in different waysTextlinguistics studies the text as a syntactic unit, its main features and peculiarities, different ways of its analysis. Discourse analysis focuses on the study of language use with reference to the social and psychological factors that influence communication. 13Subordinate word combinations. The notion of hypotaxis Subordinate word-groups are based on the relations of dependence between the constituents.
This presupposes the existence of a governingElement which is called the head and the dependent element which is called the adjunct (in noun-phrases) or the complement (in verb-phrases). According to the nature of their heads, subordinate word-groups fall into noun-phrases (NP) – a cup of tea, verb-phrases (VP) – to run fast, to see a house, adjective phrases (AP) – good for you, adverbial phrases (DP) – so quickly, pronoun phrases (IP) – something strange, nothing to do. The formation of the subordinate word-group depends on the valency of its constituents.
Valency is a potential ability of words to combine. Actual realization of valency in speech is called combinability. In linguistics, subordination (abbreviated variously subord, sbrd, subr or sr) is a complex syntactic construction in which one or moreclauses are dependent on the main clause, such as The dog ran home after it had played with the ball. The italicized text is the subordinate clause. Hypotaxis is the grammatical arrangement of functionally similar but “unequal” constructs (hypo=”beneath”, taxis=”arrangement”),